Advantages and disadvantages of quantitative research methodology pdf

Quantitative approaches to research include hard numbers and provable results, such as experiments and surveys. Qualitative research is more subjective, often including observation and interpretation of data via ethnography and personal interviews. Recent approaches to research design include using both qualitative and quantitative research -- a mixed-methodology research design. There are some advantages and disadvantages to this approach. Most mixed-methodology research begins with a qualitative observation of an event or phenomenon.

Qualitative study offers the opportunity to provide subtle details that outline a problem. The research then uses a quantitative tool, like a survey, to validate or invalidate observations made during the qualitative phase. A single-approach design might only include experiments to determine cause and effect regarding a specific issue. Conversely, it might only use observation to tell the story of why a problem has arisen. A mixed-approach design uses the strengths of both methodologies to provide a broader perspective on the overall issue.

Because people are different, some are more adept at performing one research methodology over the other. A pragmatic person leans more to the definitive answers provided in quantitative research. Those who think in a less linear manner might have a better ability to perform qualitative analysis. If someone leans toward a particular research methodology, the research could suffer from bias unless adjustments are made to account for a methodology isn't a strength for the researcher.

The process of offering a statistical analysis, along with observation, makes the research more comprehensive. Academics glean information from other academics and mixed methodologies offer a broader landscape. There is simply more information from which to develop more hypotheses.

Mixed methodology research may advance the timeline of a debate by offering more data for future discussions and research.

23 Advantages and Disadvantages of Qualitative Research

Quantitative analysis inherently looks for one answer. When conducting experiments, the goal is to find the one consistent truth throughout the experiment. Qualitative research, however, is inherently focused on multiple answers as interviews reveal a variety of information that may be different, yet true at the same time. Good researchers are aware that this phenomenon could lead to the analysis of different problems at the quantitative and qualitative phases of the research and account for that possibility.

Maurice Moss has been a writer and editor for more than 10 years. Moss' work has appeared in print and online publications, including "Nursing Management," "Eclipse" magazine and Dallasblack. He is pursuing an M. Need to cite a webpage? Download our chrome extension. How to Cite. The Rewrite. Quantitative Vs. Qualitative Research Essays.

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How to Write a Qualitative Research Paper.Quantitative research involves information that deals with quantities and numbers. That is different from the qualitative approach, which is known for observation and description.

You can measure quantitative results, but you cannot do so for the qualitative work. The research takes on a systematic approach that relies on an empirical investigation of observable phenomena. It uses statistical models, computational techniques, and mathematics to develop and employ hypotheses or theories regarding specific ideas.

The process of measurement is central to the success of this work. It is used widely in psychology, sociology, and marketing as a way to provide evidence that a hypothesis is correct. Instead of relying on instinct or opinion, this method of research seeks out facts before suggesting an outcome. That is why the research gets closely affiliated with the scientific method. Several advantages and disadvantages of quantitative research are worth reviewing when there is a hypothesis under consideration.

The quantitative approach allows you to reach a higher sample size. When you have the ability to study a larger sample size for any hypothesis, then it is easier to reach an accurate generalized conclusion. The additional data that you receive from this work gives the outcome greater credibility because the statistical analysis has more depth to review. A larger sample makes it less likely that outliers in the study group can adversely impact the results you want to achieve impartially.

You can collect information quickly when using quantitative research. Researchers collect information for the quantitative research process in real-time scenarios so that statistical analysis can occur almost immediately. Experiments, surveys, and interviews provide immediate answers that become useful from a data-centered approach. Fewer delays in the acquisition of these resources makes it easier to find correlations that eventually lead toward a useful conclusion.

Quantitative research uses randomized samples. When research participants suspect that a study wants to achieve a specific result, then their personal bias can enter into the data spectrum.

The answers provided on the included materials are partial truths or outright lies as a way to manipulate the work. This approach uses a randomized process to collect information. That excludes bias from appearing in most situations.

It also provides an advantage in the fact that the data can then get statistically applied to the rest of the demographic being studied. There is always a risk of error to consider, but it is this method that typically supplies the most factual results. Results duplication is possible when using quantitative research.

When opinions are a valid substitute for facts, then anything becomes possible. Quantitative research eliminates this problem because it only focuses on actual data.

Advantages and disadvantages of quantitative and qualitative research

The work validates itself because the results always point toward the same data, even though randomized conditions exist. There can be minute variations found over time, but the general conclusions that researchers develop when using this process stay accurate.

The facts provide statistics that are suitable to consider when difficult decisions must get made. Quantitative research can focus on facts or a series of information. Researchers can use the quantitative approach to focus on a specific fact that they want to study in the general population.

This method is also useful when a series of data points are highly desirable within a particular demographic.

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It is a process that lets us understand the reasons behind our decisions, behaviors, or actions from a societal viewpoint.The research is defined as a dynamic activity with the aim of building an increasing patrimony of knowledge.

The scientific method is the modality with which the science investigates the reality, and is the most well-known way in the process of knowledge definition.

Since the first average of XIX century, the current of positivismcharacterized by scientific progress exaltation, boosted the scientific research through the use of standardized tests, systematic observations, experiments, measures, the collection of data, statistical analysis application of the quantitative method Kroeze, However, in recent years, new approaches to the scientific method have arisen.

The interpretativismthat analyses the subjective meaning of social problems, events or practices, through the collection of non-standard data, as texts, images, and fewer numbers and statistics, opens up the road to be applied also in the scientific field.

Qualitative Vs Quantitative - Understanding Qualitative and Quantitative Research

Narrative Medicine is among those disciplines that apply qualitative research since it follows the principles of Grounded Theory. From these definitions, not only differences between the two approaches emerged, but also some important points in common, the methodological basis of the scientific research, in general.

Firstly, the research must lead to innovation in those fields where human beings have not already arrived. A thin ideological borderline exists, called frontier of sciencea place of questions still without an answer, and that experts try to explore. The Science must also renovate itself, so what is considered a scientific true nowadays could be denial tomorrow by new evidence. Although both the quantitative-Evidence based medicine and qualitative-narrative research have the same dignity from the scientific point of view, the extremism of some members of the scientific community stirs up the polarization of the research and the distance from the narrative method.

For example, Prof. Heisenberg, father of the modern chemistry and author of the uncertainty principle, that says: for a particle of the atom, it is not possible to measure, and so to actually know, a specific value of the position and movement quantity at the same time and with zero uncertainness.

advantages and disadvantages of quantitative research methodology pdf

According to this principle, indeed, at the moment of researcher observation of an electron, an activity that requires a great quantity of Energy, the electron will absorb the energy, changing its position or speed.

This is just an example among many from which we can deduce that each tentative of altering the world, the object of our scientific investigation, it is not really possible not to do errors; so, the objectivity that the scientific community vaunted is not actually possible at any level, and independently by the methodology, whether quantitative or qualitative it is.

Among the advantages of quantitative method, the possibility to reach a higher samples size is the most important one. In this way, indeed, it could be possible to better generalize conclusionssince the latter could be considered more robust and trustworthy. Further, statistic analysis software could reduce the time of the data analysis, focusing on few variables of interest Carr, Several variables, impossible to be measured with numbers actually exist — for example, measuring the deeper significance of an educational course is hardly quantified.

Briefly, the quantitative methodology shows a single moment, a picture, of phenomena, with no dynamics and poor of details Schofield, It could be also said that the qualitative methodology is holistic since it comprehends the social, cultural, values and personal contexts analysis of the phenomenon they are studying, adding meanings to the quantitative number.

Consequently to the flexibility of the qualitative analysis, also very complex phenomenon could be easier to understand, such as the relation of care between patients and doctors Denzin, The Narrative Medicine could be so considered a valid tool to add meaning, details, and amplify the medical-scientific horizon on those fields of difficult application of quantitative research, as the living with illness. Although the pros here described, we must report also several possible limitations to this approach: first of all, the qualitative method is particularly diffused and appreciated in psychological and social fields, but it is not already known in the medical sector, where Stakeholders are often supporters of the Evidence based medicine.

One of the major critics addressed to the qualitative method by EBM concerns the numerours of data collected from the samples, than the quantitative method. Indeed, the analysis of such a reach and detailed sample requires generally more time and software are few in this case.

Furthermore, this method is often considered subjective for the interpretation of data. However, the richness in details compensates the smaller number of data, and the three blind analysis bring objectivity to the interpretation Silverman, So, through the narrative medicine, it is possible to obtain, although longer work, quantitative and objective data, like as pattern of recurrence in the narratives, and quantify feeling, living, emotions, a need of the different actors involved in the disease, patients, families, and doctors, without altering the studied objective, but limiting us to observe.

In conclusion, in this article, we would like to carry out a critical analysis, showing the pros and cons of two scientific methodologies, the qualitative and the quantitative research.

advantages and disadvantages of quantitative research methodology pdf

The risk, however, is to lose important data. The integration of the two approaches could, consequently, close the gap of this recent years. Expert in Medical Writing, especially in areas as the qualitative research and Narrative Medicine. She contributes to research and educational projects with the aim of improving the quality of life and quality of care of patients with chronicle or genetic diseases.

Your email address will not be published. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.Quantitative means quantity which means there is something that can be counted.

Quantitative research is used for statistical analysis because it produces hard numbers AIU, It is most often used for large scale surveys, like the census AIU, It asks questions like how, when, where, and how often AIU, ?

There are many different uses for this type of research; it could be used to figure out demographics for patients AIU, It could be used to gather information about what laws are working and why. Criminals could have their crimes compared to one another based on the information given and perhaps the type of criminal that they are AIU, With qualitative research the researcher has an idea of what to expect.

They gather data in an effort to plug that data into the bigger picture. With quantitative data, the bigger picture is not known.

It is a way to determine how often things happen. Instead of using surveys to compile and use different types of information, this type of research figures out how often something happens and why AIU, It is also used to monitor behavior because it produces notes and observations of not just behavior, but motivation as well AIU, The methods used in qualitative research are interviews, focus groups, reviews, and observations AIU, These two types of research can be combined to equal an even larger scale research project that would yield a lot of information AIU, When it comes to figuring out the target market for the mobile manufacturing company you could take the amount of customers that there are by conducting quantitative research.

Then you could use qualitative research to figure out why those customers purchased those particular products. Once you have the why then you can figure out the target market based on the response and behavior of the customers that already exist. Qualitative research has its own set of strengths but it also has its disadvantages. With qualitative research it will be easier to gain a better understanding of the target market because the types of questions that are asked during the research process begin with the word why.

Why is a much more powerful word that when, how much, and what. With the understanding of why then they could reach out to even more people with that knowledge in the event that they advertise new and existing products.Among the benefits of quantitative research is that it lets scientists conduct broad research with many subjects, which produces more accurate results.

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Drawbacks include relatively rigid methods and lack of behavioral analysis on subjects. Quantitative research is a useful tool for measuring and analyzing large amounts of data. It is ideal for understanding the relationship between a dependent and an independent variable. Researchers often use quantitative research to test their hypotheses in an experiment, to carry out statistical analysis and to conduct large-scale research on the general population, such as collecting data for a consensus.

People use quantitative research for specific purposes, including getting answers to questions that require numbers and frequency. Researchers might take surveys of citizens, for example, to determine the presence of certain behaviors and attitudes in relation to the broader public. To determine whether or not these trends exist at the group level, researchers must use a large sample size to compare results to other groups in the population.

To carry out their studies, researchers generally survey at least several hundred people. They might also give people questionnaires to complete. Common uses for quantitative research includes studying the behaviors of a certain group within a community, looking for behavioral patterns in a certain segment population, and finding out what percentage of the population remembers and understands certain messages.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Quantitative and Qualitative Research

Benefits of Quantitative Research In addition to providing researchers with a fast and efficient way of studying a large sample size, quantitative research yields objective results.

Researchers gather objective, numerical data through quantitative research that is difficult to interpret in multiple ways. Because the data is straightforward, the results can be easily compared with other data.

Another advantage of quantitative data is that it uses statistical methods of collection. This allows researchers to understand and interpret large amounts of inherent characteristics in the data.

Lastly, the data that researchers collect through quantitative research can be put to future use by creating campaigns and programs targeted to the studied group.

Quantitative research results can be disseminated anonymously, which makes participants more willing to join in the study and makes it easier to evaluate sensitive topics. Because of the large sample size, researchers may be able to apply the results of their study to the general population.

Drawbacks of Quantitative Research Although quantitative research gives individuals a fast and easy way to sample a large group, it also has some drawbacks. While the necessity to sample a large population size can be a benefit of quantitative research, it can also be a negative factor. Researchers have to gain access to that population, which can be time-consuming and costly.

Another disadvantage is that participants in the study may be more willing to share certain pieces of information, which introduces the risk of bias. Since quantitative research does not allow for the in-depth study of behaviors and attitudes, researchers may not be able to ask detailed, probing questions. This might provide some limitations in the results of the study. Finally, there is generally a larger cost associated with quantitative research than other types of research.

Individuals may face considerable expenses when tracking their targeted demographic, which includes spending money on travel-related food, lodging and transportation. Home World View. What Is the Meaning of Quantitative Techniques?Research is about gathering data so that it can inform meaningful decisions. In the workplace, this can be invaluable in allowing informed decision-making that will meet with wider strategic organizational goals.

However, research comes in a variety of guises and, depending on the methodologies applied, can achieve different ends. There are broadly two key approaches to research — qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative Research is at the touchy-feely end of the spectrum. Examples of the way qualitative research is often gathered includes:. Interviews are a conversation based inquiry where questions are used to obtain information from participants.

Focus group discussions are a common qualitative research strategy. In a focus group discussion, the interviewer talks to a group of people about their thoughts, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes towards a topic. Participants are typically a group who are similar in some way, such as income, education, or career. In the context of a company, the group dynamic is likely their common experience of the workplace. Observation is a systematic research method in which researchers look at the activity of their subjects in their typical environment.

Observation gives direct information about your research. This is also called secondary data. A qualitative data collection method entails extracting relevant data from existing documents. This data can then be analyzed using a qualitative data analysis method called content analysis.

Existing documents might be work documents, email, or any other material relevant to the organization. Organizations can use a variety of quantitative data-gathering methods to track productivity. In turn, this can help:. Examples might include measuring workforce productivity. If Widget Makers Inc. Is the slower production on Line B due to human factors or is there a production process issue?

Quantitative Research can help capture real-time activities in the workplace and point towards what needs management attention.

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This undoubtedly has value, but it can also bring many more challenges than those simply capturing quantitative data. Here are a few challenges and benefits to consider. Qualitative research can be more targeted.

advantages and disadvantages of quantitative research methodology pdf

If you want to compare productivity across an entire organization, all parts, process, and participants need to be accounted for.Quantitative research utilizes mathematical, statistical, and computational tools to derive results.

This structure creates a conclusiveness to the purposes being studied as it quantifies problems to understand how prevalent they are. It is through this process that the research creates a projectable result which applies to the larger general population.

Instead of providing a subjective overview like qualitative research offers, quantitative research identifies structured cause-and-effect relationships.

Once the problem is identified by those involved in the study, the factors associated with the issue become possible to identify as well. Experiments and surveys are the primary tools of this research method to create specific results, even when independent or interdependent factors are present.

Data collection occurs rapidly with quantitative research. Because the data points of quantitative research involve surveys, experiments, and real-time gathering, there are few delays in the collection of materials to examine. That means the information under study can be analyzed very quickly when compared to other research methods. The need to separate systems or identify variables is not as prevalent with this option either. The samples of quantitative research are randomized.

Quantitative research uses a randomized process to collect information, preventing bias from entering into the data. This randomness creates an additional advantage in the fact that the information supplied through this research can then be statistically applied to the rest of the population group which is under study. Although there is the possibility that some demographics could be left out despite randomization to create errors when the research is applied to all, the results of this research type make it possible to glean relevant data in a fraction of the time that other methods require.

It offers reliable and repeatable information. Quantitative research validates itself by offering consistent results when the same data points are examined under randomized conditions. Although you may receive different percentages or slight variances in other results, repetitive information creates the foundation for certainty in future planning processes.

Businesses can tailor their messages or programs based on these results to meet specific needs in their community.

The statistics become a reliable resource which offer confidence to the decision-making process. You can generalize your findings with quantitative research.

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The issue with other research types is that there is no generalization effect possible with the data points they gather. Quantitative information may offer an overview instead of specificity when looking at target groups, but that also makes it possible to identify core subjects, needs, or wants.


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